In the UK every LBS gets a printed copy of BikeBiz. You need to see if Carlton Reid at BikeBiz can help. Equally, in the U.S. if there is a similar publication.
In the UK every LBS gets stuff from Madison - the sole UK distributors for Shimano. They can and do get promotional material to their stockists. Also, 'zyro' - sellers of Cateye - have a mini catalog that they get out to the shops.
In the US there will be a similar wholesaler that bike shops HAVE to deal with, e.g. to get Shimano spares that are not available somewhere else.
Another thought, in retail you cannot give potential customers bike catalogues as it is counter productive (they go to a competitor and get a better price). With-hold the catalogue and they are more likely to come back. But, if you work in bicycle sales and strike up a relationship, you want customers to come back to you by name. Therefore, sales staff need a business card rather than a catalogue/brochure to give out to people they make personal sales pitches to. These are generally lacking in the industry.
I am generally not sure that bike shops are the way to go. I think product managers further up the food chain could do with a place to get common answers to problems with their products sorted, at the bike shop level a customer with a question is a potential sale and pushing them to online 'crowd sourced' help isn't necessarily what you want. Then again, from the perspective of the guy in the shop, if customer comes in and asks for e.g. 'a spare hitch for a Burley XYZ trailer' on a busy Saturday, how does that member of staff find out the part that is needed? Bikes.se could come in handy if e.g. Burley pre-seeded bikes.se with +A pertaining to their products.
I think that there are a lot of cyclists that don't use smartphones, regular phones are what they will have. Hence I think that stickers with the QR code and a short URL are 'needed'. The missing element might be cycling advocacy. If we went in with a cycling advocacy group, e.g. to have a 'Bikes Belong' sticker with 'find me online at bikes.se/zydfa' might be useful for getting stickers to have a message and be useful. If someone didn't want my bike parked on their railings, if some stunning supermodel wanted to ask me out on a date(!) because they liked the cut of my handlebar tape or if I wanted to swap details with someone that I met on the way this could be useful - social networking in the real world.
As for implementing it technically, I don't think this would be hard.